manufacturability, amongst other factors, to optimize
both performance and cost. For instance, designing
components for less cost-sensitive applications more
conservatively so performance levels and life cycle
expectations are achieved with greater ease.
• Maverick Lot Detection, which removes
manufactured lots that are not necessarily out of
specification, but perform somewhat differently as
early as possible in the manufacturing sequence to
minimize production costs and improve final product
quality and yield. For proper implementation, this
process requires a rigorous statistical approach,
data-driven decision-making, and an intimate
understanding of product behavior.
• Batch Reliability Grading, a critical component of
comprehensive maverick lot detection programs that
employs accelerated test methods, such as Weibull
analysis, to help ensure consistent batch-to-batch
performance and eliminate premature product
By Kevin Morgan, CMO,
Clearfield and Chair-Elect,
Fiber Broadband Association
By definition, the future is only
what we can predict. When asked
about the role of technology, the
American businessman, investor, and
philanthropist Steve Ballmer responded, “The number
one benefit of information technology is that it empowers
people to do what they want to do. It lets people be
creative. It lets people be productive. It lets people learn
things they didn’t think they could learn before, and
so in a sense it is all about potential.” While the role of
technology has profoundly impacted everyone, Ballmer’s
words still ring true that we have yet to reach our
potential. Individuals and corporations alike deal with the
constantly expanding availability of technology. In 2018,
the technologies that will have the most profound impact
are the confluence of 5G and fiber.
Today’s telecommunications market is experiencing an
insatiable need for bandwidth to satisfy new applications.
Bandwidth is defined as the rate information is delivered
from one machine to another. The most popular
bandwidth rate in the news today is gigabit (signals are
exchanged one billion times per second). That may seem
like a lot until you consider that starting in 2018, 10 Gig
is the target bandwidth. Here’s why.
Gigabit services were deployed directly to consumers
and businesses using fiber as a wireline connection starting
in 2009. Numerous studies have documented the linkage
between economic growth and the availability of gigabit
services. In short, gigabit services change lives.
Wireless networks also use gigabit. Gigabit became part
of the fabric of the 4G LTE infrastructure. However, in
2018, these wireless networks will start demanding 10
Gig as the de facto data rate. 5G is the next step in the
wireless evolution and is based on 10 Gig connections.
5G is expected to support a huge boom in mobile
connectivity. By 2021, the world will have about 27.1
billion networked devices, up 58.47 percent from the
17.1 billion in 2016.
So, how will we reach our potential given all of this
technology? I believe the answer is dependent on the
speed at which we deploy fiber networks. We are
seeing that more fibers are being deployed quicker as
deployment techniques improve through innovative,
field tested solutions designed to reduce the high
costs associated with fiber deployment, management,
protection, and scaling a fiber optic network.
2018 will be the year 5G and fiber come together to let
people reach their potential.
By John D’Ambrosia, Chairman of the Board,
December 6, 2017 featured the ratification of the IEEE
802.3 Ethernet standard, IEEE 802.3bstm-2017, which
introduced Ethernet operation at 200 Gb/s and 400 Gb/s.
To achieve 200 Gb/s and 400 Gb/s data rates, multiple
lanes at either effective 50 Gb/s or 100 Gb/s signaling
rates were bonded together. The modulation used, both
electrically and optically, was PAM4. This modulation
scheme, compared to NRZ signaling, effectively doubles
the number of bits transmitted with each symbol, as
illustrated in Figure 1.
Figure 1: NRZ and PAM4 signaling comparison.
With the ratification of the 200 GbE and 400 GbE,
PAM4 signaling will expand quickly in the engineering
mainstream, especially given that one of the leading
application spaces is the hyperscale data centers, which